By E. Aaltola
Exploring how animal ache is made significant inside of Western ramifications, the booklet investigates issues equivalent to skepticism bearing on non-human adventure, cultural roots of compassion, and modern methods to animal ethics. At its heart is the pivotal query: what's the ethical value of animal agony?
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Additional resources for Animal Suffering: Philosophy and Culture
Poultry are still not included in the slaughter regulation – this despite the fact that they are by far the most common farmed animal, with over 9 billion farmed birds being killed each year. Doubts, often based on accounts of slaughterhouse workers, have also been expressed as to whether other animals are always stunned before bleeding or indeed dead before being dipped into boiling water. State laws are no better. They often exempt common agricultural practices, which means that if cruelty is ‘business as usual’ it is allowed to carry on (Mench 2008; see also Washington Post 10/04/2001).
One practical field of study that has explored this question is animal welfare science. The sciences only began to take animal welfare seriously in the latter part of the twentieth century. Even this was due to external pressures. Animal Suffering: The Practice 21 In 1964, Ruth Harrison published her Animal Machines (later followed by books such as Hans Ruesch’s Slaughter of the Innocent). The book depicted the harrowing way in which animals are treated within industrial animal production, as little more than machines.
The space and facilities provided in “enriched” cages are so inadequate that this system deprives hens of the ability to meaningfully fulfil natural behaviours, 34 Animal Suffering: Philosophy and Culture leading to abnormal behaviours, frustration, suffering and body degeneration’ (Lymbery 2002b, p. 9). The EU has also banned gestation stalls (starting from the year 2013), but a loophole allows the stalls to be used during the first four weeks of pregnancy; moreover, farrowing crates will still remain legal, which means that pigs can be kept in cages that prevent free movement during the time that they are nursing piglets.