By Gaylon S. Campbell
From experiences of the 1st edition:
"well prepared . . . advised as an introductory textual content for undergraduates" -- AAAS technology Books and Films
"well written and illustrated" -- Bulletin of the yank Meteorological Society
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Extra resources for An Introduction to Environmental Biophysics
The overbars indicate averages taken over 15-30 minutes. 4]. In each of these flux equations, the transport is accomplished by fluctuations in the vertical wind component. The ability of the atmosphere to transport heat or mass depends 37 Flux and Profile Equations directly on the size of the vertical fluctuations. Because of the proximity of the surface, the magnitude of w' is limited near the surface. Farther from the surface, transport is more efficient because the eddies are larger. We would therefore expect transport to increase with height.
The wind at the top of the canopy can be estimated from the wind profile equations given previously. 7 shows normalized wind profiles for both simple and complex canopies. 1 Bussinger, 1. A. (1975) Aerodynamics of vegetated surfaces. Heat and Mass Transfer in the Biosphere (D. A. de Vries and N. H. ) New York: Wiley. 2 Garratt, 1. R. and B. B. Hicks (1973) Momentum, heat, and water vapor transfer to and from natural and artificial surfaces. Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc. 99:680-687. 3 Gifford, F. A.
We already noted this at the beginning of the chapter, from experimental observations. If the maximum heat flux is at solar noon, the maximum temperature will occur three hours later. Two points need to be made before we conclude this section on soil temperature. 7 for a clear day and constant K with depth, fluctuations in heat input at the surface, especially on days with intermittent clouds, and changes in K with depth cause rather large departures from the assumed sinusoidal wave. The damping depth concept, however, is still a useful one.