An Introduction to Atmospheric Radiation by K. N. Liou

By K. N. Liou

Sturdy publication for either undergrads and grads. additionally precious as a reference e-book for researchers.

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J and J denote the higher and lower rotational states, respectively, as shown in Fig. 10b. The selection rules in this case are υk = 1 (fundamental) and J = ±1. Most of the molecules are in the ground state but are distributed over numerous levels of J . Thus, any molecules advancing to the level υ can go either to the next higher rotational level, for J = +1, or to the next lower level, for J = −1, with about equal probability. Using Planck’s relation, we find that the spectral wavenumber of the line is given by ν = νk +2B J , J = 1, 2 .

J and J denote the higher and lower rotational states, respectively, as shown in Fig. 10b. The selection rules in this case are υk = 1 (fundamental) and J = ±1. Most of the molecules are in the ground state but are distributed over numerous levels of J . Thus, any molecules advancing to the level υ can go either to the next higher rotational level, for J = +1, or to the next lower level, for J = −1, with about equal probability. Using Planck’s relation, we find that the spectral wavenumber of the line is given by ν = νk +2B J , J = 1, 2 .

18 requires the derivation of Eq. 25). The population of energy levels and the resulting source functions will be governed by the conflict between radiative and collisional effects. The rate of collisional adjustment of state populations is determined by a relaxation time proportional to the pressure. Radiative adjustment is determined by the natural lifetime of the excited states with respect to radiative transitions and is dependent on specific molecules but independent of the state of the medium.

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