Advances in Cryptology — CRYPTO ’85 Proceedings by Dennis Estes, Leonard M. Adleman, Kireeti Kompella, Kevin S.

By Dennis Estes, Leonard M. Adleman, Kireeti Kompella, Kevin S. McCurley, Gary L. Miller (auth.), Hugh C. Williams (eds.)

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4 is preferable because the ciphertext expansion is about inexistent, while the length of the key is only about twice the length of the message. The security level obtained is less than the one which can be obtained ([2], [El,[22]), but the scheme is much more practical if long or very long messages are sent, while one can still choose the security level one wants. The key is used as in Vernam, so is random and distributed beforehand on a secure way. Senders and receivers can easily handle message8 with variable length.

So a better definition, based on the first remark, will now be given. Definition 2: A cryptoaystem protect8 the authenticity unconditionally with a security level P if, the probabilitiea that an intrudes can inject a fraudulent message or that an active eavesdropper can modify a measage are leae or equal than 1f P , independently how much computertime i s w e d . If one of theae probabilities ia equal to one w e s a y that the system i s inaecure (to protect the authenticity}. As a consequence of this definition the Vernam scheme is insecure related to authenticity.

In our example, both u - M and M - 1 are numbers of almost 600 bits. Therefore, c 1 and may be expected to be numbers of a good 200 bits. Thus, their product may be estimated to be a number of something like 400 bits, which usually will be negligibly small compared to M‘s distance to I and u. As a consequence, the chance that M3 is not in the interval [I,u] is neghgibly small. c2 Fig. 5. CONCLUDING REMARKS The attacks presented use signatures obtained on messages having a redundancy property that are chosen to allow derivation of false signatures on other messages also having the redundancy property.

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